Difference between Ind AS 12 on Income Taxes and the existing AS 22 on Taxes on Income
Ind AS 12 is based on balance sheet approach whereas the existing AS 22 is based on income statement approach. Differences between Ind AS 12 on Income Taxes and the existing AS 22 on Taxes on Income, are as under:
(i) Ind AS 12 requires recognition of tax consequences of differences between the carrying amounts of assets and liabilities and their tax base. However, AS 22 requires recognition of tax consequences of differences between taxable income and accounting income. For this purpose differences between taxable income and accounting income are classified into permanent and timing differences.
(ii) As per Ind AS 12, subject to limited exceptions, deferred tax asset is recognised for all deductible temporary differences to the extent that it is probable that taxable profit will be available against which the deductible temporary difference can be utilised, The criteria for recognising deferred tax assets arising from the carry forward of unused tax losses and tax credits are the same that for recognising deferred tax assets arising from deductible temporary differences. However, the existence of unused tax losses is strong evidence that future taxable profit may not be available. Therefore, when an entity has a history of recent losses, the entity recognises a deferred tax asset arising from unused tax losses or tax credits only to the extent that the entity has sufficient taxable temporary differences or there is convincing other evidence that sufficient taxable profit will be available against which the unused tax losses or unused tax credits can be utilised by the entity As per the existing AS 22, deferred tax assets are recognised and carried forward only to the extent that there is a reasonable certainty that sufficient future taxable income will be available against which such deferred tax assets can be realised. Where deferred tax asset is recoganised against unabsorbed depreciation or carry forward of losses under tax laws, it is recognised only to the extent that there is virtual certainty supported by convincing evidence that sufficient future taxable income will be available against which such deferred tax assets can be realised.
(iii) As per Ind AS 12, current and deferred tax are recognised as income or an expense and included in profit or loss for the period, except to the extent that the tax arises from a transaction or event which is recognised outside profit or loss, either in other comprehensive income or directly in equity, in those cases tax is also recognised in other comprehensive income or in equity, as appropriate. Existing AS 22 does not specifically deal with this aspect.
(iv) Existing AS 22 deals with disclosure of deferred tax assets and liabilities in the balance sheet. Ind AS 12 does not deal with this aspect except that it requires that income tax relating to each component of other comprehensive income shall be disclosed as current or non-current asset/liability in accordance with the requirements of Ind AS 1.
(v) Disclosure requirements given in the Ind AS 12 are more detailed as compared to existing AS 22.
(vi) Ind AS 12 provides guidance that deferred tax asset/liability arising from revaluation of assets shall be measured on the basis of tax consequences from the sale of asset rather than through use. Existing AS 22 does not deal with this aspect.
(vii) Ind AS 12 provides guidance as to how an entity should account for the tax consequences of a change in its tax status or that of its shareholders. Existing AS 22 does not deal with this aspect.
(viii) Existing AS 22 explains virtual certainty supported by convincing evidence. Since the concept of virtual certainty does not exist in Ind AS 12, this explanation is not included.
(ix) Existing AS 22 specifically provides guidance regarding recognition of deferred tax in the situations of Tax Holiday under Sections 80-IA and 80-IB and Tax Holiday under Sections 10A and 10B of the Income Tax Act, 1961. Similarly, existing AS 22 provides guidance regarding recognition of deferred tax asset in case of loss under the head ‘capital gains’. Ind AS 12 does not specifically deal with these situations.
(x) Existing AS 22 specifically provides guidance regarding tax rates to be applied in measuring deferred tax assets/liability in a situation where a company pays tax under section 115JB. Ind AS 12 does not specifically deal with this aspect. (ICAI)