Government accounting in India follows cash basis of accounting. Government Accounting Standards Advisory Board (GASAB) constituted by the Comptroller and Auditor General of India with support of Government of India has been working on migration to accrual basis of accounting in Union and States. Any decision to change the basis of accounting from cash to accrual would essentially be based on a decision of the President of India on the advise of Comptroller and Auditor General of India under Constitutional provisions.
Indian Government Accounting Standards (IGAS) are formulated by the GASAB (Govt. Accounting Standards Advisory Board). These standards are for cash system of accounting and become mandatory from the effective date after their notification by Ministry of Finance, Govt. of India.
|IGAS Notified by Government of India|
|Guarantees given by Governments: Disclosure Requirements (IGAS-1)|
|Accounting and Classification of Grants-in-aid (IGAS-2)|
|Loans and Advances made by Governments (IGAS-3)|
|IGAS approved by GASAB and under consideration of Government of India|
|Accounting of Grants-in-aid (Modified IGAS-2)|
|Accounting of Loans and Advances (Modified IGAS-3)|
|Guidance Note on Accounting for Fixed Assets|
|Prior Period Adjustments (IGAS-?)|
|Foreign Currency transactions and loss or gain by Exchange Rate variations (IGAS-7)|
|Government Investments In Equity (IGAS-9)|
|Public Debt and Other Liabilities of Governments: Disclosure Requirements (IGAS-10)|
Indian Government Financial Reporting Standards (IGFRS)
There is a much felt need for government accounting framework and standards on accrual basis to facilitate pilot studies and research efforts on migration to accrual accounting at Union and State level. To facilitate pilot studies and for scale up of activities, GASAB has taken a decision to develop accrual basis accounting standards alongside cash basis standards. The accrual basis standards are issued under the title ‘Indian Government Financial Reporting Standards (IGFRSs)’. The accrual basis standards are issued initially as recommendatory for pilot studies on accrual accounting and will be mandatory with effect from the date of notification by Government of India.
|IGFRS approved by GASAB and under consideration of Government of India|
|IGFRS 1 : Presentation of Financial Statements|
|IGFRS 2: Property, Plant & Equipment|
|IGFRS 3: Revenue from Government Exchange Transactions|
|IGFRS 4: Inventories|
|IGFRS 5: Contingent Liabilities (other than guarantees) and Contingent Assets: Disclosure Requirements|
The government should completely switch from an accounting system that is based on cash transactions to an accounting system that is based on accruals, just like the United States, the United Kingdom, France, Canada, Australia, and New Zealand, etc., etc.
Additionally, the government should hire more number of Chartered Accountants and Cost Accountants for positions in the Indian Civil Accounts Organsations, the Indian Audit and Accounts Services, the Defence audit and accounts services, the Postal and Railway services, and other organised audit and accounts services.