Section 2(31) Income Tax: Person – Meaning

As per Section 2(31) of Income Tax Act, 1961, unless the context otherwise requires, the term “person” includes:

(i)  an individual,

(ii)  a Hindu undivided family,

(iii)  a company,

(iv)  a firm,

(v)  an association of persons or a body of individuals, whether incorporated or not,

(vi)  a local authority, and

(vii) every artificial juridical person, not falling within any of the preceding sub-clauses.

Explanation: For the purposes of this clause, an association of persons or a body of individuals or a local authority or an artificial juridical person shall be deemed to be a person, whether or not such person or body or authority or juridical person was formed or established or incorporated with the object of deriving income, profits or gains.

It may be noted that “assessee” under the Income Tax Act, 1961 is a person by whom any tax/ other dues are payable under that Act, i.e. income-tax is to be paid by a ‘person’.

The term ‘person’ as defined under the Income-tax Act covers in its ambit natural as well as artificial persons.

For the purpose of charging Income-tax, the term ‘person’, under Section 2(31) of Income Tax, includes Individual, Hindu Undivided Families [HUFs], Association of Persons [AOPs], Body of individuals [BOIs], Firms, LLPs, Companies, Local authority and any artificial juridical person.

Thus, from the definition of the term ‘person’ it can be observed that, apart from a natural person, i.e., an individual, any sort of artificial entity will also be liable to pay Income-tax.


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